Verbe avoir en anglais, “to have” mais aussi “to be” et “to do” sont les auxiliaires les plus fréquents.
Nous allons étudier ici un peu plus en profondeur l’utilisation des auxiliaires dont le verbe avoir. Les plus fréquents étant, avec avoir en anglais, les verbes être et faire qui eux aussi fonctionnent comme auxiliaires.
Revoyons ici les cas d’utilisation du verbe être – to be, de l’auxiliaire faire – to do et de avoir en anglais – to have.
En ce qui concerne les auxiliaires avoir et être, nous verrons ici comment l’auxiliaire être permet de former les “present and past continuous” ou encore la forme passive des verbes auxquels il s’associe; et comment avoir structure les “perfect tense” anglais.
Enfin l’auxiliaire faire, soit “to do” sera étudié dans son rôle dans les phrases interrogatives comme dans les formes négatives en anglais.
Lisez attentivement ces explications puis faites le test en bas de page pour valider votre bonne compréhension du sujet.
Le verbe avoir et les auxiliaires anglais
Do you remember the previous lesson about auxiliary verbs? Today we are going to take a more in-depth look at the use of the most well-known auxiliary or “helping” verbs and the modal auxiliary verbs.
Remember that, as we stated in the previous lesson, an auxiliary verb is a verb which “helps” another verb because it is used in conjunction with the other verb to form another tense, a question, or a negative statement. Remember, the three most common auxiliary verbs are to be, to do, and to have.
We use to be to form the present and past continuous as well as passive forms of verbs. For example:
It is snowing. It was raining yesterday.
The piece is being played by the Boston Symphony Orchestra.
We use to have when we make statements in the perfect tenses. For example:
It has been raining since early this morning.
He had been studying for three hours when his mother told him to stop.
We use to do to ask questions and negate statements:
Do you like chicken soup?
I don’t like broccoli.
He didn’t go to school yesterday.
While these auxiliary verbs are relatively easy to understand, some people get a bit more confused when it comes to the modal auxiliaries. Remember, modal verbs are special verbs which we use in conjunction with other main verbs and/or other auxiliary verbs to express other tenses or moods. We use modal verbs to express habits, permission, advice, ability and probability.
It is also important to remember that modal auxiliary verbs are special verbs because they do not take the –s in the third person singular form. Also, we use not to make modal verbs negative. Finally, there are a number of modals which cannot be used in the past or future tenses (can, must, etc.)
When used, modal verbs are followed by the bare infinitive form of the main verb.
Les modaux les plus utilisés
Must: used to express moral obligation
Must not (mustn’t): used to express moral prohibition
Can: used to express ability, possibility or permission
Could: used to express ability or possibility in the past or the future as well as possibility of the present or in conditional circumstances
Cannot (can’t): used to express inability, impossibility or the lack of permission
Have to: external obligation
Don’t have to: used to express that something is not necessary
Should: a suggestion or a piece of advice
Should not (shouldn’t): a suggestion or piece of advice against doing something
Will: used for the future
Would: used to express willingness, habits, or hypothetical events
Used to: used to talk about something that took place habitually in the past or the simple sense of being familiar with something. It is a very colloquial way of speaking and is best not to use in formal writing or speech.
Texte anglais sur les auxiliaires ou modaux
Have you understood the lesson? Remember, the function of auxiliary verbs and modal verbs is to convey another tense, mood, or feeling when using a different main verb. Also, remember that with modal verbs you do not conjugate the modal by adding the “-s” when using the third person singular.
Read the following text to check your knowledge!
What do you do at Christmas? Do you have any plans for this year? Are they similar to what you did last year?
I still have to decide what I am going to do and where I am going to celebrate this important holiday. My parents are coming to visit this year so I should find something interesting to do but it looks like it will be difficult. Most places in this area close around Christmas! My parents say that I shouldn’t buy them gifts but I would really like to get them something special from the area where I live. My best friend here said she would be willing to go shopping with me and help me find something. However, I am used to going shopping on my own and I actually prefer shopping by myself! Maybe, if I had more patience, I could go shopping with others. However, I get very impatient in stores and I shouldn’t go shopping with others.
My husband says we must get a real Christmas tree. It is very hard to find a real live pine tree in this region and I don’t know where he wants to go to buy one. I know we could travel three hours to the closest Christmas tree farm and spend some serious money to buy an expensive tree. However, I don’t want to spend that much money on something we are just going to throw away in a couple of weeks! My parents say we mustn’t get a real Christmas tree and that it truly doesn’t matter to them.
We would like to get Christmas stockings for everyone so that we can all have the same sort of Christmas experience. However, since I can sew, I think I am going to make the stockings myself. It will be a lot cheaper to simply pick up some fabric and some thread to make the stockings myself! I downloaded a pattern from the internet and I printed it onto a big sheet of paper. I can cut the design out and use it as a pattern to cut the fabric. I could also find some interesting patterns on the internet.
Thanks to websites like Pinterest, I have lots of ideas of how I would like to decorate my home. It’s our first Christmas in our new home and we are very excited! We can’t decide, however, just what we want to do. My husband wants to put lights up around the house but I don’t like Christmas lights. I prefer a much more tasteful way of decorating a home. If it wasn’t for me, my husband would probably put up every tacky Christmas decoration that exists! He particularly likes the new and trendy inflatable Santa Clauses, reindeer, and snowmen. I can’t stand them!
How do you decorate for Christmas? Will you do anything special this year?